Geothermal Energy is the thermal energy that comes from the earth’s core. It´s the thermal energy that is contained in the rock and fluids beneath Earth´s crust. The temperatures of the earth rise from the surface to the core where the heat can reach up to 5.000 °C. The heat from the core is constantly radiating outward and warming rocks, water, gas, and other geological material.
If the rock formations underground are heated up to 700 to 1.300°C they can become magma. Magma exists in the mantle and the earth´s lower crust. The Magma heats nearby rocks and underground aquifers where some of this super-heated water rises back to the surface of the earth where it emerges as hot springs or even geysers. Sometimes the hot water becomes trapped below the surface as a geothermal reservoir.
Geothermal energy can be found almost anywhere in the world from the shallow ground to deep under the surface where it can be harnessed by drilling wells into the geothermal reservoirs. The hot water that rises emerges at the surface as steam which can be used to drive turbines producing electricity. If the water is not hot enough to produce steam, it can still be used to heat homes and businesses (direct use).
Geothermal is a clean, green sustainable energy source and scientists estimate the earth’s total geothermal resources to amount to 50,000 times the energy content of all the world’s fossil fuels.
Geothermal energy utilization is a technically proven and financially feasible method of powering green communities that will have a great role to play in the world’s future fight against air pollution and global warming.